It’s not really where you live, but rather how you live. Cities tend to have bigger air pollution problems, but depending on the city, their waste due to transportation may be less because of public transit. Suburbs are further away from polluting factories and buildings, but not living in an environmentally conscious way can be just as bad. Just be conscious of what you’re doing!
The city. Cities generally have higher-density housing, better mass transit and more walkable and bikeable areas than the suburbs, all of which save energy. Individual houses with their own heating and cooling systems, individual cars, the necessity to drive everywhere are characteristic of suburbs and are huge contributors to greenhouse gas emissions.
I think it depends mainly on how you live, not where you live. There are advantages and problems to both locations. In cities, you will be able to walk and take public transportation more, which definitely is better on the environment. But then in the suburbs, you can grow a lot more of your own food and have more choices about how your house is run (as opposed to large buildings in a city that are have housing cooperatives). But in either place you can take the steps necessary to live in a more eco-friendly way.
If everything else is neutral, cities have a tendency to be more eco-friendly. Generally, they offer public transit and allow people to walk and ride to their various desitinations. By definition, suburbs are outside the city, and more spread out. In places of higher population, there are more options–more places to eat, shop, and live a green live. Suburbs on the whole are populated by large, chain stores and restaurants.
That said, everyone is right–its not only where you live, but how you live.
I have to go with the consensus here. The location is less important than how you conduct yourself. Cities tend to have more pollution because there is just so much more going on, however people rely much more on public transportation in cities than in suburbs, which is a definite plus. Things in the city also tend to be much more communal. Apartment buildings use the same systems (heating, electrical, water, etc) as private homes but the systems are shared by many more people. Overall though, you can try to live as efficiently as possible wherever you are if you just make good decisions.
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