The color blue is on the shorter end of the visible light wavelength spectrum. Red and orange are on the longer end. As light passes through the atmosphere, the lower-energy, longer-wavelength rays of red and orange light pass through the gas molecules in the atmosphere, but the higher-energy, shorter-wavelength rays of blue light are scattered by those molecules. As a result, you see blue colors when you look into the sky.
The sky is blue due to a principle called Rayleigh scattering. Light waves try to pass through the atmosphere, but there are molecules of oxygen, nitrogen, water, etc. that are in the paths of the waves. The longer wavelengths of light, which correspond to colors like red and orange, generally can pass through without scattering. Shorter wavelengths of light, such as blue, are absorbed by molecules in the air and scattered out of the molecules in all directions. That is why the sky is blue.
As light moves through the atmosphere, most of it passes straight through. However, the shorter wavelength blue light is absorbed by the gas molecules in the atmosphere and is then radiated in all directions. It gets scattered all around the sky, and so the sky looks blue from below.
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