Essentially there are two factors, the sun and the ocean currents. Water near the Equator are heated by the sun directly almost all year round. This maintains a relatively high temperature. But the water in the ocean is not stagnant, it is constantly being moved around by ocean currents such as the Gulf Stream which moves warm water from the Gulf of Mexico to Northern Europe. Places away from the Equator such as Spain and parts of France get warm water do to these currents.
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