In oceans with extreme depth, it is pitch black at the ocean floor simply because sunlight cannot reach there. Organisms that live in these ecosystems, though, have adapted to their environment of dark, cold water to survive.
Under the right conditions, light can travel up to 3,280 below the ocean surface. In unindeal conditions, which is to say most of the time, sunlight only penetrates the ocean by about 656 feet, or 200 meters. The part of the ocean that receives sunlight and contains life that can photosynthesize is known as the euphotic zone.
The water itself isn’t black or composed differently, it’s simply due to an extreme lack of light. As edmccoy11 said, it’s fascinating how many organisms and ecosystems have adapted to the absence of light. Some of the more interesting characteristics in the entire animal kingdom belong to deep-water fish and creatures. Most rely on highly sensitive sensory organs to identify their environment without many visual cues.
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