When a pot of water is placed on a lit stove, energy is added to the the water particles in the form of heat. This energy causes the molecules to move and vibrate faster, until they become separated even change form from liquid to a gas. It takes a while for the energy to collect enough to make a pot of water boil, but obviously if you put a lid on the pot less energy will escape out of the top; thereby shortening the amount of time need to produce a boil.
To answer your question simply, water takes exactly as long to heat as it’s nature requires. In this question we are dealing with a term called “specific heat.” Specific heat is the amount of heat needed to raise 1 gram of a substance 1 degree Celsius. Water has a specific heat of 1 calorie/gram. This is pretty high for a liquid, and metals take much less, which is why the rim of the pot can burn your finger while the water in the pot is still room temperature.
As much as it might be an inconvenience, consider that substances with low specific heat might heat faster but they also cool slower. You wouldn’t want your tea to be cold by the time you got to the couch! All life which lives in or is made up of water benefits from this nature, as temperature doesn’t fluctuate so wildly that it damages organs, habitats, etc.
Water is held together by hydrogen bonding which is an extremely stable and strong bond. To heat water you must break those bonds and to do so you need a lot of energy.
Break of bonds = boiling water.
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