When fermentation occurs in composting anaerobic break down is occuring, this means that no oxygen is present during the process. This is not bad, but is not good per se. Anaerobic composting takes much longer than aerobic composting, is much smellier, and requires more knowledge for proper composting to be done. Check out the website below for more details.
If you are composting at home, fermentation in the composing process should be avoided because it is unpleasant and not as good for the final compost. Fermentation occurs in anaerobic (lacking oxygen) environments as living anaerobic organisms break down organic compounds; however, unlike aerobic decomposition, the resulting compost has reduced levels of organic nitrogen and increased levels of organic acids and ammonia. It also releases significant amounts of methane which results in the pungent odors of the purification process. Another problem that arises is the growth of pathogens in the fermentation process, which in aerobic decomposition are destroyed by the high temperature; anaerobic decomposition cannot generate enough heat to kill the harmful organisms. They do get destroyed, just at a much slower rate (about 6 months to a year) due to the unfavorable conditions of the fermentation.
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