Desalination can be accomplished via electrodialysis, freezing, and reverse osmosis. These processes all require a good amount of energy to separate the freshwater from the solution. Since salt is an ionic compound, the boiling point is significantly higher than the water it is dissolved in. Therefore considerable large amounts of energy are needed to change the phases of water into either a vapor or a frozen solid to effectively separate the water from the salt. Energy is also needed to pump the high volumes of water through various phases of separation, purification, and eventually to treatment and distribution.
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