Activated charcoal is the one used for filtration. The activation by heating with oxidizing gases and impregnated chemicals (such as acids, bases, or salts) makes it very porous. This results in much larger surface area – 500-1500 m^2 per 1 gram and more – available for chemical reactions as well as adsorption (adhesion of substances to a solid surface). However, it is only efficient for filtering certain substances, which excludes strong acids and bases, metals and most other inorganics, alcohols, glycols, and ammonia. Various chemicals may be added to activated carbon to make it filter a wider range of substances.
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