This is a difficult question to answer. I guess, the real answer is genetics. There are many different species of lady bugs (about 5000 in fact) and so it is likely that if you see one lady bug with spots and one without, they are two different species of lady bugs. The purpose of the spots seems to be to warn predators they taste bad, and if the predator decides to take a bite, they will often go after a portion of their back rather than their head.
Ladybugs, or ladybird beetles as they are called, are comprised of many different species. Some species have four spots, some many spots, and some have no spots at all. Often spots on an animal help to break up its body shape so a predator does not identify it as potential prey. The ladybird beetle without spots may live in a place where predators are limited or perhaps it has a toxin that prevents it from being eaten.
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