Well for starters a glacier forms from years upon years of of snow compacting into a large ice formation. During that process the ice crystals push out the air and obsorb the light blue color wave lengths that are reflected in cold waters. Once a glacier hits warmer water the crystals begin to break down and begin reflecting all the light hence appearing more white. But as far as lakes go the blue color is due to the cold temeratures of the water and even the clouds play a roll in making water appear bright blue.
As glaciers move they grind rocks into find powder. Over many cycles of snow building up and melting this powder gets deposited and suspended in the lakes formed by glaciers. This silt absorbs most light wave lengths except for blue which it reflects giving the lake its color. In addition to this glacial areas do not have as much plant life as other areas and therefore do not have plants breaking down, darkening the color of the soil and affecting the color of the water.
The blue color is often wrongly attributed to Rayleigh Scattering. Rather, ice is blue for the same reason water is blue: it is a result of an overtone of an oxygen-hydrogen (O-H) bond stretch in water which absorbs light at the red end of the visible spectrum.
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