Diamonds are made of carbon – nothing else. Strangely, graphite is ALSO made of only carbon, and it is soft and slippery. The difference, and what makes diamonds so hard, is in the way that the carbon molecules in diamond are bonded together in a crazy matrix-like network pattern, where each molecule is the same distance away from every other. Graphite, to compare, has strong bonds between molecules in the same LAYER, but weak bonds between layers causing the layers to easily slip over one another.
See an animated example at the link below.
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