Caves are so damp inside, especially during warmer months, because of how much cooler the air inside the cave is. The warm air holding moisture enters the cave and is cooled, so more of the moisture condenses.
The most common type of cave is Solutional caves. Rock is dissolved by natural acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding-planes, faults, joints etc. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves or cave systems. The portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded. The cave will be ‘wet’ because of the moisture caused by the groundwater.
Some caves have water flowing through them in some areas, other caves are “wet caves” and are formed by the repeated action of waves hitting rocks which would then tend to keep the cave wet. Other caves have neither of these features but instead are situated in such a way that they allow water vapor to collect inside of them where it then condenses to make the surfaces wet or to pool into puddles.
When limestone is in contact with the acid in groundwater, it breaks down causing a cave (the process is more complicated than that but there’s the gist), so often it is the groundwater that you’ll find inside. If the cave forms below the water table, it can become flooded. Additionally, water filters down through substrate and soil and ends up in caves.
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