Before 1860, “most of Central Italy was governed by the Papal States of which the Pope was the head.” They had no official armies, but instead were protected by mercenaries and international armies. However, between 1860 and 1870, these states were absored into the Kingdom of Italy during the struggle for Italian unification. The pope’s territory was limited to the Vatican and Lateran palaces.
In 1929, the Lateran Treaty between the papacy and the kingdom of Italy established the autonomy of Vatican City, so it was no longer a part of Italy and became an entire state under the papacy.
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