Because of people. Many of the cities lining the lake dump their commercial and domestic waste directly into the waters, quite the unhealthy practice.
A large reason has to do with eutrophication, which is an increase in the concentration of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem to an extent that increases the primary productivity of the ecosystem. In Lake Victoria in Africa, for example, dense mats of water hyacinth float on huge surface areas. This problem has been somewhat reduced by biological methods -a beetle feeding on water hyacinths was introduced. Parts of the lake, near Kisumu and Kampala show oxygen depletion and reduced transparency.
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