For the European Union, it looks like the government monitors airline emissions. Under the EU ETS, or the European Union Emission Trading Scheme, certain large emitters of CO2, including airlines, have to monitor their emissionsand report them to the government each year. The actual process is a bit more complicated than that (airlines are given emissions allowances that they are then allowed to use or sell) but that’s the basic system.
The Aviation Environment Federation produced a report in 2008 that tracked airplane emissions. One official stated that “Growth of CO2 emissions on this scale will comfortably outstrip any gains made by improved technology and ensure aviation is an even larger contributor to global warming by 2025 than previously thought.” A specific figure from the report: the United Kingdom released 37.5 million tons of aviation CO2 emissions in 2006 alone. As sfincher already said, the E.U. has taken a new stance to include airlines into the carbon trading scheme and hold them accountable.
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