Until earlier this year, nobody really did, because mineral rights on most national forest lands in the eastern half of the U.S. are largely privately owned, and the Forest Service has long maintained it does not have the right to regulate extraction through drilling or mining. But on Dec. 29, 2008, the Forest Service published a notice in the Federal Register saying it was “preparing to promulgate regulations to provide clarity and direction on the management of National Forest System surface resources when the mineral estate is privately held.”
The other answer addresses drilling and mining on National Forest lands. Other Federal lands are administered by others, such as the Bureau of Land Management; if it is not Federal land, there might still be some federal regulations, but in general such oversight would come from the state regulatory agency or agencies dealing with oil and gas and mining. Offshore, there is a narrow band administered by the states; most of the offshore beyond a few miles is Federal waters and is administered by the Minerals Management Service (which has a new name I don’t know since it screwed up in oversight on the Gulf of Mexico well, apparently). All this is for the US only. Other nations have other oversight systems, or none at all.
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