In America, all policy is primarily crafted by the Legislative branch. For Federal law that is the Congress, for state law it is the State Legislature. Policy can also be crafted by the President, through the use of executive orders (EOs). EOs are legally binding proclamations by the President that can be overruled by an act of Congress. Environmental policy is also influenced by outside actors, such as the Environmental Protection Agency, the Sierra club, the media, and many others.
In most cases, the broad environmental policy objectives are drafted by a legislative body, either federal or state legislatures. State and federal agencies are then responsible for enforcing these laws. Agencies like the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency can regulate within the framework of the drafted laws. This is for the United States, of course. Other countries have different processes that usually follow similar trends. Ultimately, individual senators make environmental policy, and then a variety of people help to pass and enforce it.
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