Dmitri Mendeleev came up with the general design in 1869, leaving gaps where he knew there were elements yet to be discovered. He organized elements by their atomic mass. Later, in 1913, Henry Moseley made the slight change of organizing them by (usual) number of protons, so that they could see exactly which elements had not yet been recognized.
Dmitri Mendeleev is usually credited as the inventor of the periodic table though it has gone through many changes and adjustments over the years. Furthermore other tables were in existence or at least invented simultaneously such as that of Lothar Meyer. The link below has an extensive history if you want more details.
While there were precursors to what we now recognize as the periodic table, Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev is credited as the creator of the table.
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