The first of these subatomic particles to be discovered was the proton. It was discovered by a man named Ernest Rutherford in 1919. More than a decade later in 1932, a physicist named James Chadwick hypothesised the idea of the neutron. This hypothesis was soon after accepted as valid.
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It’s actually a long story involving several people. After the electron was discovered by J.J Thomson in 1897, E. Goldstein discovered proton as their counter charged companions in 1900. In 1911E. Rutherford discovered the two parts of the atom, nucleus versus electron cloud and in 1932 James Chadwick proposed the existence of neutrons to explain the composition and mass of the nucleus. Finally in 1940 N. Bohr put forth the modern atomic model which chemist still use today. The link below has a full time line of all these events.
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