In our solar system there really isn’t any atmosphere that even comes close to Earth’s. The atmospheres of the gas giants are mostly composed of hydrogen and helium with some other trace element, though Uranus and Neptune also contain methane (which makes them blue) and ices. All three of the terrestrial planets, Mercury, Mars and Venus have atmospheres composed primarily of carbon dioxide. Compared to Earth’s atmosphere, the atmospheres of Mars and Mercury are both very thin. Venus is the only other terrestrial planet with a substantial atmosphere, but it is actually much denser than Earth’s and composed of toxic gases. There is some evidence that Mars may have had a more Earth-like atmosphere at one point, but that would have been a long time ago.
maddie is right about the comparison not really being possible to be drawn, but I’d like to attempt to answer your question more directly if I may. I’d say the contenders for closest would be either Venus or Mars. Not because the atmosphere are anywhere remotely similar mind you, but because they are closest. If you have a person one thousand miles away from another, they are still closest to people ten thousand miles away – you wouldn’t really call it close, but they are closest.
Venus manages to rank up there because of its size. It is called Earth’s “sister planet” by some people because not only is it closest but it shares a lot of similarities. It’s atmosphere is roughly the same size for this reason.
Mars manages to rank up there because there is some evidence, as maddie mentioned, that it has an atmosphere similar to Earth’s in the past.
Neither would be sustainable for human life without massive amounts of technological aid. Mars is more likely because it doesn’t have the caustic clouds and crushing pressure of Venus.
I would say Venus hands down because of the fact that it actually has clouds. If you have read any science fiction books about Venus, most of them speak of how it is constantly raining. Venus has much higher concentrations of carbon dioxide than Earth, and if we are not careful we may wind up with some of same problems that Venus has. Acid rain is already a problem in some parts of the world.
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