Sand comes from eroded rock or minerals. This is why it can be different colors. Sand often comes from quartz and feldspar, but the black sand beaches in New Zealand and other Pacific islands is from volcanic rock, while white sand beaches are often from gypsum. Mixed in the sand you can often find microscopic pieces of creatures from the ocean: coral, seashells, sponges and reef animals. Sometimes, often in tropical places like the Caribbean, there are even small pieces of calcareous green algae that make up particles of sand.
Sand is actually made up of tiny bits of sedimentary rock. Over time, these sediments that are suspended in water wash up along a shore and form beaches. Check out the video below from Discovery.
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