The factory farming of livestock began in the 1920s. In the beginning of the 20th century, scientists and farmers discovered the role of vitamins in human and animal health and then created vitamin supplements. The use of supplements allowed for some animals to be raised indoors, and later discovery of antibiotics and vaccines allowed a much larger scale of animals to be raised in such a way.
The British Agricultural Revolution which led to the Industrial revolution, helped spawn modern livestock farming techniques we see today. Advances in farming technology like Jethro Tull’s seed drill, and Joseph Foljambe’s Rotherham plough allowed for easier harvests and people began to rely on farmers to supply agriculture. The most important change in livestock farming came from England when Robert Bakewell and Thomas Coke introduced selective breeding (mating together two animals with particularly desirable characteristics), and inbreeding (the mating of close relatives, such as father and daughter, or brother and sister, to stabilize certain qualities) in order to reduce genetic diversity in desirable animals programs from the mid 18th century. Robert Bakewell cross-bred the Lincoln and Longhorn sheep to produce the New Leicester variety. These methods proved successful in the production of larger and more profitable livestock. (Wikipedia)
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