Well, there’s the obvious, which is that males will have penises and females will have vaginas for reproductive organs. But this isn’t necessarily so easily-observed! There are two species of elephants, the Asian and African species. In Asian elephants, only male elephants have tusks–females are tuskless. In African elephants, the female is somewhat smaller than a male. A male African elephant will stand about 3.2 meters at shoulder height–females will only stand about 3 meters tall.
Socially, they are very different as well. Females will live in a tightly-knit social group, whereas males will tend to live relatively solitary lives.
There are noticeable differences in size compared to male elephants and female elephants. Male elephants are relatively larger than female elephants. Male Savanna Elephants stand from 3.2 meters to 4 meters and can weigh from 7,700 lbs to 12,000 lbs. Female elephants tend to be smaller with females standing up to 3 meters at the shoulder.
Both male and female African elephants have large tusks that can reach over 3 meters and weigh nearly 200 pounds. In the Asian species, female tusks are much smaller and sometimes can be absent altogether. The tusks of asian male elephants can be much longer than their african cousins.
Social behavior between male and female elephants are very different. Female elephants spend the majority of their lives in family groups made up of mothers, daughters, sisters, and aunts. These family groups are led by the eldest female, or matriarch, while adult males live solitary lives. While males will generally live solitary lives, they will occasionally form groups called bachelor herds with other males. They spend majority of their time fighting other females for dominance with each other and only the dominant males will be permitted to breed with the females.
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