Anopheles is an entire genus, with over 400 species. While 30 or more species commonly carry and transmit malaria, and eliminating them all would obviously impact that, there are many more ramifications – there is absolutely no way to know what the interwoven web of ecological interactions and interdependencies is for all those species, or, often enough, even for one species. There could be a relationship between the mosquitoes and some bird that preys on them; the bird could be critical in distributing the seeds of some grain that is vital to digestion by cattle or that helps them combat disease; or literally thousands of other possibilities. I just made that up, but the ecoweb is complex far beyond our present understanding in many or most situations.
Mosquitos are also valuable as they are colonizers within ecosystems. Colonizers are those species which can inhabit a recently destroyed or damaged area before most other species can. The presence of mosquitos in an area can then attract predators and so on. This can rebuild a damaged area after a disaster such as a fire.
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