In mid 1800’s, during the industrial revolution in England, white-colored pepper moths were found all over the city. As industrial activities accelerated, the infrastructure blackened with the soot and pollutants that factories expelled. White colored pepper moths became an easy target for predators because they stood out in the landscape. Consequently, white colored pepper moths began less abundant, while darker colored pepper moths became more abundant. A century later, when environmental policies were implemented to clean up the air, the landscape was cleaner, white colored pepper moths became more abundant. Pollution had, in this case, triggered natural selection to affect the genetic makeup of a species very quickly and through manmade causes. Good thing, pollution did not lead to the demise of this moth species.
There can be many ways. For example, air pollution can create acid rain which can kill fish in lakes by increasing the acidity of the water. Furthermore, water pollution (because of the many chemicals present) can cause decline in some species such as frogs. Another interesting kind of “pollution” is noise. Think of dolphins who use their sense of hearing for finding prey and the noise of nearby ships and such disturb that.
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