There are a few that are recognized as the largest. The largest African diaspora was the Atlantic slave trade which moved 12 million people from West, West-Central and South-east Africa to the Western Hemisphere as slaves starting in the 16th century. There is also the Indian diaspora which has over the last couple centuries spread 25 million Indians across the globe. There is also the Irish diaspora in the early-mid 1800s, when up to 85% of Ireland’s population left during the great famine.
Over the course of human history, the Jewish diaspora has been the largest, and has resurged throughout several periods of history.
Interesting question. While exact numbers are not given, it has been suggested that the diaspora due to the Irish potato fammine and the migration of African slaves are among the largest in modern times. It is interesting to note, that these migrations were not due to their desire to leave, but rather against their will due to natural disaster and capture for economic benefit.
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