It looks like the Kidney was the first successful organ transplant, which took place in 1954. The first successful organ transplant was performed at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston on Richard Herrick. The kidney was donated by his twin brother, Ronald Herrick, and the operation was performed by Dr. Joseph E. Murray and Dr. J. Hartwell Harrison.
To answer your question, as asked:
I’ll submit this answer: The kidney.
“The first documented kidney transplant in the United States was performed June 17, 1950, on Ruth Tucker, a 44-year-old woman with polycystic kidney disease, at Little Company of Mary Hospital in Evergreen Park, Illinois, a Chicago suburb. Although the donated kidney was rejected because no immunosuppressive therapy was available at the time – the development of effective antirejection drugs was years away – Tucker’s remaining diseased kidney began working again and she lived another 5 years before dying of an unrelated illness. Thereafter, successful kidney transplantations were undertaken in 1954 in Boston and Paris”
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