Negative population growth is attributed to two factors: having more deaths than births (increased death rate or lowered fertility rate) and emigration–when more people leave the country than come in. I think that a falling fertility rate is the most common cause (access to better medicine is keeping more people alive at older ages). For instance, Taiwan is expected to see a negative population growth in 2023 due to people having fewer children–on average, there are 1.3 children per woman there.
Japan is a great example of a country suffering from negative population. In 1998, the average birthrate for a Japanese woman was estimated to be 1.38. Japan’s even offering incentives such as the Bandai Corporation offering its employees a $10,000 stipend for every baby born after the second child.
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