The caldera is often filled in with ignimbrite, tuff, rhyolite, and other igneous rocks. Silica-rich magma does have a high viscosity, and therefore does not flow easily like basalt. As a result, gases tend to become trapped at high pressure within the magma. There is a type of lava in calderas called A’a.
Calderas are formed by the emptying of the magma chamber beneath the volcano, usually as the result of a large volcanic eruption. If enough magma is ejected, the emptied chamber is unable to support the weight of the volcanic edifice above it. If the magma is rich in silica, the caldera is often filled with ignimbrite, tuff, rhyolite, and other igneous rocks. There is a type of lava in explosive calderas called A’a.
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