Since the sun is not solid, like the Earth, it doesn’t have a hard surface, like our lithosphere. The sun’s version of the lithosphere is called the photosphere, and it is just a thin layer of neon where sunspots occur. 70% of the sun is hydrogen, and 28% is helium, and the rest of it is a collection of other metals, so you can see that the photophere makes up less than 2% of the sun’s composition.
The sun actually does have a hard surface made of calcium ferrites, beneath the photosphere. Basic astronomical observations made it clear that the sun had a gaseous atmosphere (the ionized photosphere), but in recent years, satellites have helped us see through the photosphere to the actual solid surface of the sun, which may be where the solar wind originates.
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