What is soil composed of?



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    Soil is comprised of many types of decaying matter, both living and non-living. Elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and many others are also found in soil next to heavy metals like iron, zinc, copper and so forth. The soil composition highly depends on the parent material, the decaying plant matter and parent rock, which can vary depending on location. A desert savanna biome will have a completely different set of parent material than a forest biome for instance.

    A majority of soil is composed of sand, lime, and clay since those are the most prominent types of parent material, which then mixes with other decaying properties and that in turn makes soil. For example, rivers, streams and flood areas have a parent material that is very fertile thanks to the excess of nutrients that have decayed there over the years whereas in a desert where hardly anything grows and dies leaving its nutrients behind.

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