The presence of sunspots causes a slight increase in solar energy, which gets absorbed by ozone in the stratosphere. The air over the tropics is warmed, and the warmed ozone causes more ozone to be formed which absorbs more solar energy. This uneven warming of the stratosphere changes the movement of stratospheric winds that lead to increasing tropical rains. The extra solar energy also causes slight warming of the ocean surface, fueling evaporation in the subtropical Pacific. This leads to more water vapor in the atmosphere and causes heavier rains in the western tropical Pacific.
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