Well coal is a rock-like substance made out of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and varying amounts of sulphur with different hardness gradations (to correspond with the different types). Petroleum, or oil, is a type of fuel formed by compressed organic material that turned into sedimentary rock. So coal and petroleum are formed in the same way but are used for different purposes.
Petroleum is not organic material that turned into sedimentary rock. Petroleum is a fluid that is contained within the pore spaces of sedimentary rocks (and rarely, other rocks including volcanics and granite).
Coal and petroleum have significantly different burial histories and (usually) different original materials. Coal forms from woody plant material (mostly) and oil derives mostly from algae and plankton.
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