Cells reproduce in one of two ways — meosis or mitosis. I am not sure that anyone has ever done a study on the energy requirements for each process. My guess is that they are pretty close to one another as far as how much energy is required to produce new cells. Meosis makes 4 new cells rather than 2 (for mitosis, when cells simply divide in half and split to form two new cells), so perhaps this is a little more energy intensive (but I’m not sure). We are talking about tiny fractions of calories here… and you would probably have to measure the energy in units smaller than milliwatts… so it isn’t the most important thing to worry about as far as energy efficiency goes — they are both just biological processes which have occured throughout countless eons of time— and they do not produce any negative externalities (bad stuff doesn’t happen as a result of their being inefficient) so it is more important to look into energy efficiency in transportation (cars only supply about 12 percent of the energy they burn up to the drivetrain— that means we waste over 80 percent of the energy in fuel!) and manufacturing processes (and the like) rather than biological systems (which have been perfected over time via. evolution/ natural selection).
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