I’m not sure if it can be definitively said what the most eco-friendly fuel is, but I would say that biofuels would be on the top of the list. These don’t produce the environmental destruction and high levels of greenhouse gas emissions generated by fossil fuel extraction. Food wastes, like grease, can be used to power vehicles rather than being tossed out and buried in the Earth; this situations kills two birds with one stone by recycling and producing fuel. Additionally, biofuels can be created from crops like corn, soy, mustard, camelina, and canola.
As far as combustible fuels go, I agree with chelseyzellita that biofuels, especially Waste Vegetable Oil (WVO) are the best for the reasons she stated.
However, in the non-combustible fuel department, using electricity is the best. Electricity can be generated from several renewable sources of energy including solar power, wind power, and geothermal power. By transferring electrons from one battery cell to another, we can store this energy for later uses such as driving an electric car. Transferring electrons from one place to another is a very efficient process that wastes much less energy than combustion.
Still, nothing beats riding a bicycle. The human body is very efficient, and it becomes even more efficient with a couple of wheels. Food is a type of biofuel when it comes right down to it because we break the covalent bonds between hydrogen and carbon to release energy when we “burn” calories. With combustion, the energy gets turned into heat before it can be utilized, and a lot of energy is wasted because we cannot harness all the heat that gets produced. Plus, hauling around a heavy metal shell with a gigantic engine requires a lot more energy than a few tubes of steel (or aluminium or carbon or whatever fancy lightweight composite materials they are using today) that make up a bicycle.
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