A monocot stem is name for a particular type of plant stem.
According to Wikipedia:
Vascular bundles are present throughout the monocot stem, although concentrated towards the outside. This differs from the dicot stem that has a ring of vascular bundles and often none in the center. The shoot apex in monocot stems is more elongated. Leaf sheathes grow up around it, protecting it. This is true to some extent of almost all monocots. Monocots rarely produce secondary growth and are therefore seldom woody, with Palms being notable exceptions. However, many monocot stems increase in diameter via anamolous secondary growth.
The source in the citation is actually a really good place to look for a thorough explanation of the many differences between monocot and dicot stems. In general, we are talking about the different ways flowering plants recieve and distribute nutrients throught the structure, and it’s important to note that if a stem is woody, it’s probably a dicot, but that if it is not woody, you’ll have to look for other distinguishing characteristics (listed in the source) to discern which is which.
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