Mining has caused several detrimental effects on the environment. This might range from simple erosion to mercury poisoning. There could be chemical poisoning which could last for several centuries after the mining has been stopped. However to answer your question coal mining especially the mountaintop removal coal mining has caused most damage.
In the US, the largest Superfund site is in and around Butte, Montana and 120 miles down the Clark Fork River. The damage there was not due to any one mine, but to several hundred underground mines and one open pit over about 110 years of mining. Despite the intensity of the damage, the Clark Fork river has come back to life thanks to (expensive) remediation and restoration, which is continuing. The copper from Butte was the primary source for copper for telephone and electric wires that contributed significantly to the industrial development of the entire US in 1875-1930, so there was a beneficial trade-off, as there always is.
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