Because of the heat under the earth’s surface, many submerged rocks melt into magma, which is less dense than the surrounding rock. As a result, magma begins to float to the top. When it pushes through a vent or fissure on the earth’s surface, it erupts. The scale of the eruption depends on the consistency of the magma. Thin magma allows its gases to easily escape and therefore, simply flows as lava when out of the volcano. However, thick magma doesn’t allow its gases out so easily; pressure builds until a violent eruption occurs.
When rocks melt beneath the earth’s surface to form lava, that lava is less dense than the surrounding earth. Therefore, as science says, the less dense material will float to the top, or highest point and erupt either explosively or not. If the magma is thin, and runny, gases are escaping and there is less pressure, so lava will typically flow out of the opening. If the lava is thick, there is more gaseous buildup, more pressure, and this is how it erupts explosively.
The Earth’s mantle (the layer under the crust) is formed of solid rock that is under high heat and pressure. This causes the mantle to liquify, or become molten. When the molten rock (or magma) gets through the cracks in the Earth’s crust, you have a volcano, which erupts when the pressure of the magma and gases exceeds the strength of the Earth’s crust. Volcanoes with runny lava create flat, relatively “gentle” eruptions, whereas thicker lava creates domelike volcanoes that erupt in explosions.
Volcanos eruptions occurs when magma, ash, and/or volcanic gas is expelled from within a volcanic fissure in the earth’s crust. Generally, eruptions happen when the magma rises and collects within magma chambers. As the magma nears the surface of the earth, the pressure decreases and causes it to expand thereby forcing it out of the opening in the ground.
The explosion of the volcano depends on the composition of the magma. Thinner magma allows gases to escape easily, resulting in more of a volcanic flow than explosion. On the other hand, thick magma holds in more gases which causes more pressure buildup and eventually a more violent explosion. These types of eruptions expel magma in the form of debris that ranges from small particles to large boulders.
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