There are multiple dangers that fertilizers pose. In reality, it is inorganic fertilizers that have severe risks. For one, inorganic fertilizers contain nitrates that can pollute water/groundwater. Inorganic fertilizers also have the potential to have undergone a recycling process, which could leave traces of lead or other heavy-metal residues. At the very least, plants consume these residues, and at the most, humans consume those residues within treated plants. Also, inorganic fertilizers are often made from petroleum. Whatever fertilizer goes on a crop can be ingested by all forms of life, from wild to human.
Fertilizer runoff results in vast environmental pollution including eutrophication. Nitrogen from fertilizer increases crop yields but it also results in algal blooms that reduce the amount of oxygen in water systems, choking aquatic species. The greenhouse gases associated with fertilizer (nitrous oxide and ammonia) contribute to global warming.
When fertilizer runs off into water bodies it creates Hypoxic zones, which are literally areas of water with no air. Fish cannot survive in these zones. A huge hypoxic zone is rapidly growing in the gulf of mexico because of all of the fertilizer in the Mississippi River
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