Diamonds are so strong because of their chemical make-up. They’re are formed deep in the earth’s crust under immense pressure and temperature. The atoms that make up the diamond are so tightly packed together that it makes the diamond very strong.
It is not their chemical makeup (pure carbon) as much as the way the atoms are arranged. Graphite is also pure carbon, and it is among the softest of all minerals. Tight packing and strong bonds between atoms is what makes diamonds hard. If by strong you mean something other than “hard” then there are other considerations. Diamond actually has perfect octahedral cleavage, meaning it is very easy to break it along certain crystal planes. But being easy to break, and being hard, are not even remotely the same thing.
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