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Anoxic conditions which are caused by lack of sufficient oxygen levels. Oxygen can be depleted by the proliferation of oxygen consuming organisms such as bacteria and algae. In a dead zone, very few species survive due to the absolute lack of oxygen.
Dead zones are caused by eutrophication, which is the overtaking of an ecosystem by plants like algae that use up all of the oxygen. Eutrophication is caused by an over-abundance of chemical nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus that cause these blooms, which get into the water by runoff containing fertilizer and sewage.
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