The Mayflower utilized the energy of the waves and currents, taking 66 days to complete the voyage from England to America. Wind energy was also used, by the sails connected to the ship. Therefore, if the wind blew in the “wrong” direction, the ship could be blown off the correct course.
You can actually sail a ship into a headwind by using a method calling “tacking” where you just make zigzagging Z’s back and forth and let the wind push you forward still somwhat, just off course one way, and then switch back to go the other way. I am not sure, but I believe the mayflower was probably equipped with some oars — so we need to include bio-mechanical energy (human power, via the mighty mitochonria!)— and if not then I am sure that they either used dingy-style boats to get to shore which were driven by oars / bio-mechanical energy, and it also required human power to raise and lower sails. The point I am trying to make is that it was Humans PLUS Nature that allowed for their transport. And that if we want to curb carbon emission, we should look to the past for inspiration! (Reversion, anyone?)
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