what happens to particles when a substance gains energy and changes state



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    No matter what state a substance is in, its constituent particles are moving.  In a solid substance, the particles are held together by intermolecular bonds and can only vibrate in place; but if energy is applied to the substance, the particles will vibrate more and more until they have enough energy to break free of their bonds, and thus the substance becomes a liquid.  In a liquid state, particles are able to move around bounce off of eachother and the sides of their container, but their motion is still influenced by intermolecular forces.  When more energy is applied, particles are freed from this influence almost entirely and move freely.

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