When gasoline is burned (resulting in those fumes), it emits carbon dioxide (CO2) at a rate of 19.4 pounds/gallon (1). CO2 is a greenhouse gas (GHG), meaning in large quantities, it traps heat in the atmosphere. CO2 actually accounts for 9 to 26% of the greenhouse effect (2). When gasoline is burned, and CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere, CO2 molecules absorb the energy from infrared photons (because the photons excite the molecule and cause it to vibrate). Long story short, contents of the gasoline fumes remain in the atmosphere and help create the greenhouse effect.
If the question means simple evaporation rather than burning, what happens is that the chemicals that make up gasoline volatilize, or become gases. Gasoline is not one chemical but is a mixture of many things including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. Each of these, once in the atmosphere, can change in sunlight and react with other atmospheric compounds in various ways; some of these volatile organic compounds help create photochemical smog. They can also produce CO2 through atmospheric reactions, though more slowly than by burning as described in pperlin’s answer.
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