“Upward motions make rain happen. The faster the air goes up; the harder the rain comes down. Everything else that occurs within the atmosphere simply builds on this basic principle.”
Rain happens two ways from clouds. Either the cloud is in an area with enough water vapor in the air that there are little ice crystals that get bigger and bigger until they are too heavy and fall. If the air temperature is cold enough they come down as snow, if it is not cold enough they fall as rain. In the other instance, clouds condense, often as they approach or go over a mountain range. This forces the water or ice droplets that are in a cloud to smash together until they are too heavy and fall, again as snow or rain. This process creates what is called a rain shadow. They is the phenomenon that area that falls on the inland side of a mountain range becomes a desert. This is from the clouds condensing and dropping rain over the mountain, then the clouds build up moisture again as they go over the deserts until they reach the next mountain range that has the same effect.
A cloud is a collection of water that has evaporated from the surface of earth. When the water evaporates into the air, it hits the cold atmosphere and condenses. If too so much water condenses that the could becomes too heavy for the atmosphere to keep aloft, or if temperatures drop decreasing pressure, the condensed water falls back to earth as rain.
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