I think you mean the earth’s “carrying capacity.” The carrying capacity of a species is the greatest population of the species that the environmental can sustain, given the necessities available in the environment. This theory of carrying capacity was publicized by Thomas Malthus, an English clergyman.
The thing with carrying capacity is that it is not a fixed number. Estimates put Earth’s carrying capacity at anywhere between 2 billion and 40 billion people (obviously that is an extremely wide range!). It varies greatly because people from different regions may live extremely different lifestyles, with some much more sustainable than others.
Part of the problem is that it depends greatly on how much land we’re going to leave for animals and ecosystems. If we completely demolished all forests and natural environments, we could fit a lot more people. But we’d also have no clean drinking water or oxygen!
The majority of conservation issues stem from humans encroaching on natural environments. Many conservationists think there are too many people already.
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