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An endemic species is one that lives in only one particular region of the world. Lemurs are an example. They live on the island of Madagascar, which is off the coast of Africa, and are not found anywhere else in the world. This species in an example of a national endemic because they are found in one country. Other endemics are confined by geographical regions, such as a mountain range that crosses country borders.
Endemism refers to the state of being ecologically unique to a specific location, often isolated from other parts of the world (ie. islands, between mountain ranges, etc). There are two types of endemism. Paleoendemism is used to describe species that were once widespread across a large area, but are currently restricted to smaller and more isolated locations. Neoendemism refers to isolated species that stem off of another species, and have been classified as a completely seperate species after several generations of being separated from the parent species.
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