Most plankton can photosynthesize their own food. The ones who cannot photosynthesize eat smaller plankton, bacteria, or organic matter.
Many plankton, called phytoplankton, produce their own food through photosynthesis, like plants do. Some plankton eat other plankton. Scientists are just beginning to get a better understanding of the world of plankton. A suprisingly large amount of plankton feeding revolves around tiny bits of organic matter floating in the ocean, such as colloids and stray polymers.
Source: Edward O. Wilson, The Future of Life, pg. 14
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