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Aquatic plants need essentially the same things as land plants: water, light, and carbon dioxide. Even underwater, deep sea plants need these things in order to complete photosynthesis.
In the ocean, many aquatic plants root themselves near enough to shore that light still filters down to them (in the euphotic zone). Other plants float in order to receive sunlight directly.
That’s why there aren’t actually any plants in the deepest parts of the ocean (the aphotic zone), because no light reaches there. Instead, chemosynthetic bacteria grows there.
The most abundant plant in the ocean is phytoplankton, which are usually single-celled plants that float around near the surface of the ocean and give the water cover.
A map of phytoplankton concentrations in the Atlantic Ocean from Oceans Alive:
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