As of 2007, China mined the most coal, followed by the United States, Australia, and India. In 2007, China mined 2.8 billion tons of coal, or 39.8 percent of the world’s total coal mined in that year.
Though this was three years ago, China is probably still in the top spot.
In 2008 China had mined almost 3x more coal than the US, the second place coal mining country. China mined 2761 metric tons, while the US had 1007 metric tons.
Interestingly, Australia, the fourth place coal miner (behind India) mined 325 metric tons. I recently read that is one of their main sources of electricity production, and I believe they do not have any nuclear power.
The values in greenbean’s answer should be million metric tons – 2,761 million and 1,007 million metric tons. By 2009 China is up to 3.3 billion tons while the US is about the same, at just over 1 billion (note that the values in my ref are short tons, 2000 pounds, rather than metric tons, ~2200 pounds).
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